Intersection Operations and Safety

Intersections are designed points of conflict in all roadway systems. This includes U.S. and state highways, county roads, and local streets. All modes of traffic cross paths as they travel through or turn from one route to another. Where different paths separate, cross or join are known as conflict points, and these are always present at intersections. Limiting the number of conflict points at an intersection not only reduces the frequency and severity of crashes, but also improves the overall operation and mobility.

In 2015, Florida ranked as the #1 state in the country with the most intersection-related traffic fatalities. With over 30 percent of all traffic fatalities occurring from intersection-related crashes, the Florida Strategic Highway Safety Plan (SHSP) identifies intersection safety as one of the top emphasis areas for the state. In response to this call to action, and with direction from leadership, FDOT has developed an Intersection Control Evaluation (ICE) manual to aid in this effort.

The ICE process quantitatively evaluates several intersection control scenarios (alternatives) and ranks these alternatives based on their operational and safety performance. Implementing a “performance-based” procedure such as ICE creates a transparent and consistent approach to consider intersection alternatives based on metrics such as safety, operations, cost, and social, environmental, and economic impacts.

Manual on Intersection Control Evaluation (ICE)

Please view ICE Bulletin 22-03 for a description of the revisions to the 2023 ICE manual.

ICE Forms

ICE Tools

  • CAP-X

    FDOT-modified Capacity Analysis at Junctions (CAP-X) which provides generalized capacity information as part of the initial ICE stage.


    Safety Performance for ICE (SPICE) for safety performance evaluations, which are required for stages 1 and 2 of the ICE process.

  • FDOT ICE Tool

    FDOT ICE Tool for comparing life-cycle and benefit costs of top alternatives during the final stage.  

Default Synchro Templates for Alternative Intersection Types:

  • Bowtie
  • Continuous Green T-Section
  • Displaced Left-Turn
  • Diverging Diamond
  • Jughandle
  • Median U-Turn
  • Quadrant Roadway
  • Restricted Crossing U-Turn
  • Thru-Cut

Scope of Services and Staff Hour Estimation

  • Staff Hour Estimation - (New October 2019) This document (including ICE guidelines, ICE analysis and ICE plans) provides detailed information on intersection control evaluation, breaking down the activities and tasks that can appear in a scope document, along with recommended staff hour ranges to provide a detailed effort of the intersection control evaluation.
  • Scope of Services - (New October 2019) Use this file to prepare the scope of services for an intersection control evaluation project.  The scope file is the complete Standard Scope which includes services to be performed, submittal/deliverables, reporting, length of service and fee estimate. All changes and/or additions to the Standard Scope shall be made in bold-italics to help draw attention to the users of project specific changes.
  • Reference links:

    Additional Resources

    For additional information, please contact the State Traffic Services Section at .