Intersections are designed points of conflict in all roadway systems. This includes U.S. and state highways, county roads, and local streets. All modes of traffic cross paths as they travel through or turn from one route to another. Where different paths separate, cross or join are known as conflict points, and these are always present at intersections. Limiting the number of conflict points at an intersection not only reduces the frequency and severity of crashes, but also improves the overall operation and mobility.

Manual on Intersection Control Evaluation

In 2015, Florida ranked as the #1 state in the country with the most intersection-related traffic fatalities. With over 30 percent of all traffic fatalities occurring from intersection-related crashes, the Florida Strategic Highway Safety Plan (SHSP) identifies intersection safety as one of the top emphasis areas for the state. In response to this call to action, and with direction from leadership, FDOT has developed an Intersection Control Evaluation (ICE) manual to aid in this effort.

The ICE process quantitatively evaluates several intersection control scenarios (alternatives) and ranks these alternatives based on their operational and safety performance. Implementing a “performance-based” procedure such as ICE creates a transparent and consistent approach to consider intersection alternatives based on metrics such as safety, operations, cost, and social, environmental, and economic impacts.

ICE Forms
ICE Tools
  • CAP-X

    FDOT-modified Capacity Analysis at Junctions (CAP-X) which provides generalized capacity information as part of the initial ICE stage.


    Safety Performance for ICE (SPICE) for safety performance evaluations, which are required for stages 1 and 2 of the ICE process.


    FDOT ICE Tool for comparing life-cycle and benefit costs of top alternatives during the final stage. 

Default Synchro Templates for Alternative Intersection Types: (97.7KB)
  • Jughandle
  • Median U-Turn
  • Quardrant Roadway
  • Restricted Crossing U-Turn
  • Continuous Flow Intersection (CFI) (aka Displaced Left-Turn)
  • Diverging Diamond
  • Continuous Green T-Section

Intersection Safety Improvement Plan

The Intersection Safety Implementation Plan (ISIP) identifies key steps, responsibilities, estimated funding requirements, and estimated injuries and fatalities prevented annually. Working closely with FDOT Safety Office, the following steps are crucial to the success of this plan:
  • Conduct ICE for top ranked intersections
  • Screen on-system intersections and implement low-cost countermeasures
  • Work with FDOT Office of Design to develop and publish new intersection design standards and guidelines
  • Continue to provide guidance, training and oversight on the Highway Safety Manual predictive methods

Additional Resources

For additional information, please contact Javier Ponce at