Engineering Safety Countermeasures


Top 3 Safety Emphasis Areas of Florida's Strategic Highway Safety Plan


FHWA’s 20 Proven Safety Engineering Countermeasures:


Lane Departure Crashes and Countermeasures

Most fatal crashes are a result of lane departures. A lane departure crash is one in which a vehicle leaves its lane, possibly due to weaving or swerving, running off the road, wrong way driving, or overcorrecting, and collides with other vehicles, structures, trees, or other objects, or other people. Work Zones crashes are often the result of lane departures.

Practices for Preventing Roadway Departures: Roadway Departure Safety - Safety | Federal Highway Administration (

Intersection Crashes and Countermeasuresintersection

Intersections are locations where motorists and other road travelers’ cross paths and are where the greatest potential for conflicts exists on the transportation system. Making left turns, changing lanes, and navigating through intersections are among the most complex traffic situations that travelers encounter and require appropriate signage, traffic control devices, roadway design, lighting, and other measures to ensure everyone’s safety. Rail grade crossings are a type of intersection.

Innovative Operations and Safety Improvements at Unsignalized Intersection:

Pedestrian- and Bicyclist-Involved Crashes and Countermeasuresped

Approximately two-thirds of pedestrian- and bicyclist-related fatal crashes occur outside of a marked crosswalk or bicycle lane. Many serious and fatal injuries to pedestrians and bicyclists occur during dark or dusk hours. Motorist speed is one of the major factors that can mean the difference between a minor injury and a serious injury or fatality for a bicyclist or pedestrian. As speed increases, the likelihood of a crash with a bicyclist or pedestrian resulting in a fatality or serious injury also increases.

Safe Transportation for Every Pedestrian:

PedSafe Countermeasure Selection System:

BikeSafe Countermeasure Selection System:

Cross-Cutting Countermeasures for All 3  Emphasis Areas:

Local Road Safety Plans

Road Safety Audits



Safety Audit Guidelines:

Roadway Safety Audit (RSA) Guidelines

Pedestrian RSA Guidelines

Wrong Way Driving RSA Prompt List

Planning for Safety Guidelines:

Transportation Safety Planning (TSP) - Safety | Federal Highway Administration (

FDOT Project Development and Environment (PD&E) Manual 

The process outlined in the Project Development and Environment (PD&E) Manual is the Florida Department of Transportation’s (FDOT’s) procedure for complying with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Title 42 United States Code (U.S.C.) § 4321, et seq., and associated federal and state laws and regulations. The PD&E Manual provides project analysts and Project Managers a framework for the consistent development of analysis, technical studies, and Environmental Documents for transportation projects to achieve compliance with federal and state laws, regulations, and requirements. The PD&E Manual also serves as FDOT’s standard policies and procedures, supporting quality control and quality assurance in project development.

FDOT Safety Analysis Guidebook for PD&E Studies

The purpose of this guidance is to provide directions for integrating quantitative safety analysis into the PD&E process commensurate with the project complexity and utilizing the best available data and methods, analysis examples demonstrating application of quantitative safety analysis and interpretation of results in the PD&E studies, and consistency and uniform format for completing safety analyses for PD&E studies throughout the state, and thus expediting analysis, documentation and review.
safety analysis guidebook

Quantitative Safety Analysis section of our Interchange Analysis Request User’s Guide (IARUG)

The purpose of performing safety analyses in Interchange Access Requests (IARs) is to understand the impacts of the proposed modifications on safety and crash likelihood at an existing or proposed interchange. It is important that an appropriate safety analysis methodology is selected to analyze the proposed modifications in the IAR. The safety analysis method chosen for the IAR should be in concert with the purpose and need, alternatives analysis and other aspects of the study project. The objective of the safety analysis is to examine the effects of the IAR proposed modifications on the safety performance of the interchange. As such, the safety analysis should proactively aim at reducing or correcting potential safety concerns before recommendations are constructed. The safety analysis should include the analysis of the existing conditions using historic data and future safety analysis of the proposed modifications using statistical analysis techniques for crash prediction methods.
Quantitative safety analysis

FDOT’s Actualizing Safe Access to Transit

This guidance provides guidance for implementing safe access to transit stops through the lens of improved coordination for bus stops, including safe, accessible crossings and sidewalks and infrastructure. 
dont stop at the stop

Designing Roadway Countermeasures:


Design Project Safety Prompt Lists:  Design Prompt Lists

Design Project Safety Prompt List Field Packet: Field Packets

(Thank you to FDOT District 7 for this prompt list)


A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets (commonly referred to as the ‘AASHTO Greenbook’)

National reference for public roadways that contains the current design research and practices for highway and street geometric design.  It provides recommended ranges of values for critical roadway dimensions.  Not intended to be a detailed design manual.




AASHTO Greenbook

FDOT Standard Plans

Established to ensure uniform application of standard designs and details in the preparation of contract plans for projects constructed on the State Highway System. Only includes items that are determined by the Districts and the Central Office to be suitable for statewide implementation. Formerly referred to as the Design Standards, these are standard construction details that are published as sets of Indexes. Standard Plans are developed with consideration for durability, maintainability, and broad applicability. However, they may not be suitable for use on all projects or site conditions. The Engineer of Record (EOR) must determine the appropriate application of Standard Plans for each project.

FDOT Standard Plans

Manual of Uniform Minimum Standards for Design, Construction and Maintenance (commonly referred to as the 'Florida Greenbook')

Florida specific reference that expands on national reference to provide roadway design criteria for public roadways.

Florida Greenbook

FDOT Standard Specifications

Florida specific minimum requirements for contractors on the methods of constructing projects on the state highway system.

FDOT Standard Specifications

FDOT Design Manual

Florida specific manual that includes additions, deletions, or modifications to the AASHTO Greenbook to provide instructions and sample exhibits for preparing plans for roadway projects on the State Highway System.  The criteria in this manual represent requirements must be met for the design of FDOT projects unless approved Design Exceptions or Design Variations are obtained in accordance with procedures outlined in this manual. Roadway and structures design are primarily a matter of sound application of acceptable engineering criteria and standards. While the criteria contained in this manual provide a basis for uniform design practice for typical roadway design situations, precise standards which would apply to individual situations must rely on good engineering practice and analyses.

FDOT Design Manual

Manuals for Conducting Traffic Operations Studies for  Countermeasures:

ITE Manual of Transportation Engineering Studies

A national guidance document for conducting various studies on public roadways using standardized study techniques and current technology.

Manual of Transportation Engineering Studies

Speed Zoning

Florida specific manual, adopted by Florida Administrative Rule, that provides guidelines and recommended procedures for establishing uniform speed zones on State, Municipal, and County roadways.

Speed Zoning Manual

Manual on Uniform Traffic Studies (MUTS)

Florida specific manual that expands on national reference and establishes minimum standards for conducting traffic engineering studies on the State Highway System.


Manual on Intersection Control Evaluation

Florida specific manual that outlines methods of quantitative analysis to select intersection control types on the State Highway System


Manuals for Designing Traffic Operations and Access Management Related  Countermeasures:

Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD)

National reference manual that provides minimum standards for all Traffic Control Devices - all road signs, highway markings, electronic traffic signals, railroad crossings, and road-way construction zone areas for public roadways.


FDOT Access Management Guidebook

Florida specific guide for coordinated planning, regulation, and design of access between roadways and land development by reducing conflicts on the roadway system and at its interface with other modes of travel, for public roadways in Florida.

Access Management

FDOT Traffic Engineering Manual

Florida specific reference that expands on national reference to provide traffic engineering standards and guidelines to be used on state roadways for signs, signals, markings, and operational topics for the state highway system.


Construction of Countermeasures:

Work Zone Safety:


FDOT Construction Project Administration Manual (CPAM)

The Construction Project Administration Manual (CPAM) contains instructions for administering Department of Transportation Construction contracts and describes requirements and procedures for Final Estimate preparation associated with those contracts. This Manual provides instructions to Department representatives for administering items mandated in Florida Statutes, rules and/or contract specifications and for the successful completion of construction contracts including instructions to assist those charged with the responsibility of documenting final quantities and preparing final estimates. This Manual ensures consistency in carrying out Department of Transportation policies and helps ensure that all construction contracts are successfully administered on a fair and equal basis.


construction  project

Maintenance of Countermeasures:

FDOT Maintenance Rating Program (MRP) Handbook

The information contained in this handbook defines a method of conducting a visual and mechanical evaluation of routine highway maintenance conditions. The purpose of this evaluation is to provide information that should be used to schedule and prioritize routine maintenance activities and provide uniform maintenance conditions that meet established Departmental objectives. General program requirements are outlined in the both the Roadway and Roadside Procedure, Topic No. 850-00-015 and the Maintenance Rating Program procedure, Topic No. 850-065-002.

maintenance rating program

Page updated: June 15, 2022